History Podcasts

History of Tate - History

History of Tate - History

A county in the northwestern corner of Mississippi.

(AKA-70: dp. 13,910 (tl.); 1. 459'0"; b. 63'0"; dr. 26'4" (lim.); s. 16.5 k. (tl.); cpl. 395; a. 1 5", 8 40 mm.; cl. Tolland; T. C2S-AJ3)

Tate (AKA-70) was laid down under a Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 1398) on 22 July 1944 at Wilmington, N.C., by the North Carolina Shipbuilding Corp.; launched on 26 September 1944; sponsored by Mrs. C. E. Tate; delivered to the Navy on loan-charter on 3 November 1944; and commissioned at Charleston, S.C., on 25 November 1944, Lt. Comdr. William Jordan, USNR, in command.

The attack transport completed shakedown training in the Chesapeake Bay early in December and steamed to Davisville, R.I., to load Hawaii-bound cargo. She headed south on 30 December, transited the Panama Canal between 4 and 6 January 1945, and reached Pearl Harbor on the 18th. She remained in the Hawaiian Islands until 31 January when she departed Port Allen, Kauai Island, for the Marshall Islands.

Tate reached Eniwetok on 4 February and joined Transport Squadron 17, which soon departed for the Philippines. Proceeding via Ulithi Atoll and Kossol Roads, she reached Leyte Gulf on 21 February and made a shuttle to Samar Island to discharge cargo and disembark passengers before beginning preparations for the upcoming invasion of Okinawa. After training for the assault, she combat-loaded the men and equipment of the Army's 77th Infantry Regiment at Tarranguna, Leyte, and on 21 March departed the Philippines with the Western Islands Attack Group. Her destination was Kerama Retto, a small group of islands located to the south and west of Okinawa, which became the fleet's steppingstone to Okinawa itself. Her soldiers and equipment went into action against the islands of Aka Shima, Kuba Shima, Yakabi Shima, and Zamami Shima. By the afternoon of 28 March, the islands of Kerama Retto were secured, and Tate joined the other ships in a waiting area.

The attack transport remained in the vicinity of Okinawa through three weeks of April, also participating in the assault on le Shima during her last week in the area. On the 22d, she headed for the Marianas, arriving at Saipan on 27 April. Five days later, she headed for the Solomon Islands. Tate loaded marines and cargo at Guadalcanal and Tulagi between 8 and 17 May before heading back, via Eniwetok, to the Marianas. Reaching Guam on 4 June, she disembarked the marines and discharged her cargo. On the 13th, the attack transport got underway for the United States.

On 25 July, Tate steamed out of San Francisco Bay to return to the combat zone. Stopping at Eniwetok from 5 to 10 August, she reached Guam on the 14th, the day before the cessation of hostilities. From there, she headed for Ulithi and thence, via Okinawa, to Jinsen, Korea, for occupation duty. Tate returned to the Philippines early in October, visiting Manila and Subic Bay. After stops at Tsingtao, China, and Okinawa in late November, the attack transport steamed back to the United States, arriving at Seattle on 13 December. She remained there until 26 February 1946, when she got underway for San Francisco. The ship loaded cargo between 1 and 16 March and then headed for Eniwetok and Kwajalein.

She discharged her cargo at the two atolls and got underway for Panama on 4 April. Tate reached the Canal Zone on 23 April; but, instead of entering the canal, she remained on the Pacific side to help in the final removal of Americans from the air base at Seymour Island in the Galapagos. She returned to Balboa on 20 May, transited the canal, and reached Hampton Roads on 28 May. Tate was decommissioned on 10 July 1946 and, three days later, was returned to the War Shipping Administration. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 19 July 1946. Sometime between then and 1948, she was purchased by the Luckenbach Steamship Co. of New York City and served that line as SS Julia Luckenbach until 1958.

Tate was awarded one battle star for World War II service.

Born in White Coppice, a hamlet near Chorley, Lancashire, Tate was the son of a Unitarian clergyman, the Reverend William Tate, and his wife Agnes née Booth. When he was 13, he became a grocer's apprentice in Liverpool. After a seven-year apprenticeship, he was able to set up his own shop. His business was successful, and grew to a chain of six stores by the time he was 35. In 1859 Tate became a partner in John Wright & Co. sugar refinery, selling his grocery business in 1861. By 1869, he had gained complete control of the company, and renamed it as Henry Tate & Sons. In 1872, he purchased the patent from German Eugen Langen for making sugar cubes, and in the same year built a new refinery in Liverpool. In 1877 he opened a refinery at Silvertown, London, which remains in production. At the time, much of Silvertown was still marshland. [1] Tate was a modest, rather retiring man, well known for his concern with workers’ conditions. He built the Tate Institute opposite his Thames Refinery, with a bar and dance hall for the workers' recreation. [2]

Tate rapidly became a millionaire and donated generously to charity. In 1889 he donated his collection of 65 contemporary paintings to the government, on the condition that they be displayed in a suitable gallery, toward the construction of which he also donated £80,000. The National Gallery of British Art, nowadays known as Tate Britain, was opened on 21 July 1897, on the site of the old Millbank Prison.

Tate made many donations, often anonymously and always discreetly. He supported "alternative" and non-establishment causes. There was £10,000 for the library of Manchester College, founded in Manchester in 1786 as a dissenting academy to provide religious nonconformists with higher education. He also gave the College (which had retained its name during moves to York, London and finally Oxford), £5,000 to promote the ‘theory and art of preaching’. In addition he gave £20,000 to the (homoeopathic) Hahnemann Hospital in Liverpool in 1885. He particularly supported health and education with his money, giving £42,500 for Liverpool University, £3,500 for Bedford College for Women, and £5,000 for building a free library in Streatham. Additional provisions were made for libraries in Balham, South Lambeth, and Brixton. He also gave £8,000 to the Liverpool Royal Infirmary, and £5,000 to the Queen Victoria Jubilee Institute, which became the Queen's Institute for District Nurses.

Tate was made a baronet on 27 June 1898. [3] He had refused this title more than once until – after he had spent £150,000 to build the Millbank Gallery, endowed it with his personal collection, and presented it to the nation – he was told the Royal Family would be offended if he refused again. [2]

In 1921, after Tate's death, Henry Tate & Sons merged with Abram Lyle & Sons to form Tate & Lyle. [2]

In 2001, a blue plaque commemorating Sir Henry was unveiled on the site of his first shop at 42 Hamilton Street, Birkenhead. In 2006 a Wetherspoons pub in his home town of Chorley was named after the sugar magnate.

Tate married Jane Wignall on 1 March 1841 in Liverpool. [4] They had three sons. Tate lived at Park Hill by Streatham Common, South London, and is buried in nearby West Norwood Cemetery, the gates of which are opposite a public library that he endowed. Park Hill became a nunnery after his death until refurbishment as housing around 2004.

About Tate County, Mississippi.

Tate County is located in the northwestern portion of Mississippi just east of the Delat. Tate County was formed on December 23, 1873 and was named for the Thomas Simpson Tate, a prominent early settler. Famous actor James Earl Jones if from Tate County.

The county seat, Senatobia, began as a railroad stop on the Senatohoba Creek. Chartered in 1860, it was occupied and partially burned by Union forces during the Civil War.

Senatobia is the home of Northwest Mississippi Community College, a state community college that provides two year academic and technical degree programs. Northwest's system-wide enrollment exceeds 8,000 on three campuses in Senatobia, Southaven, and Oxford. Senatobia is also the home of The Baddour Center, a residential care facility for mild to moderately mentally retarded adults.

On April 13, 1834 early settler James Peters purchased two sections of land from the Chickasaw Nation for the sum of $1.25 per acre. The land purchased later became the town of Senatobia. The name Senatobia, given by Charles Meriweather, was derived from the Indian word Senatohoba, which means “White Sycamore”—a symbol of "rest for the weary."

The county has a total area of 410.95 square miles of which 404.48 square miles is land and 6.47 square miles (1.57%) is water. The population recorded in the 1880 Federal Census was 18,721. The 2010 census recorded just 28,886 residents in the county.

Neighboring counties are DeSoto County (north), Marshall County (east), Lafayette County (southeast), Panola County (south) and Tunica County (west). Senatobia is the county seat. Other communities in the county include Coldwater, Arkabutla, Independence, Looxahoma, Sarah, Savage, Strayhorn, Thyatira, and Tyro.


Circuit was a four-year national programme led by Tate and funded by Paul Hamlyn Foundation. Circuit involved Firstsite, Colchester MOSTYN, Llandudno Nottingham Contemporary Tate Britain and Tate Modern, London Tate Liverpool Tate St Ives The Whitworth, Manchester and Wysing Arts Centre and Kettle&rsquos Yard, Cambridgeshire.

Circuit set out to create better access to the arts for 15&ndash25 year olds. It was built on Tate&rsquos long-term work with young people and aimed to reach those who might not usually connect with galleries. It brought together a national network of arts organisations to test new ways of working.

Over four years, the programme reached more than 175,000 people through events and projects. It demonstrated that art can have a significant impact in building young people&rsquos confidence, practical skills and their social and personal development.

Learning and evaluation were embedded throughout Circuit, with gallery staff, young people, artists and partners supported to reflect on their experiences. Find out more and read research papers, conference materials, reports and blog posts on the Circuit Evaluation page.

Ulysses Simpson Tate (1900-1968)

Ulysses Simpson Tate, attorney and civil rights leader, was born on January 26, 1900 in Good Springs, Alabama to James Washington and Mary B. Tate. The youngest of five children, he received his bachelor’s and master’s degree from Lincoln University in Pennsylvania. He then attended Howard University and graduated in 1947 with his law degree. While in school, he met and married Jennie E. Tate.

Tate and his family moved to Dallas in 1948 after he became the attorney for the Southwest Region of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). In this position, Tate began filing lawsuits and implementing the NAACP strategy for desegregating schools. In 1949, he filed a suit against the public school district in Fort Smith, Arkansas, alleging that the black high school was old and unsafe. He also noted the omission of certain subjects at the African American school such as chemistry, physics, and the romance languages—courses that were available at the white high school.

This successful lawsuit served as a model for subsequent legal challenges in Arkansas. Winning cases to improve conditions in high schools throughout the Southwest region, Tate then employed the NAACP strategy to desegregate college- and university-level Jim Crow practices. In 1950, he was one of the attorneys that filed a case against Louisiana State University Law School, which refused to admit Roy S. Wilson because of his race. Tate encouraged more blacks to enroll in college and worked on opening more schools so that, by September of 1954, there were 11 Texas junior colleges opened to blacks. He also filed against several institutions, including the University of North Texas College, Lamar College, Midwestern University, and the University of Texas, El Paso. Tate won dozens of lawsuits that desegregated schools, parks, hospitals, and other public facilities across the Southwest.

Tate worked on other cases as well, including a 1951 challenge to voting discrimination in Harrison County, Texas, and another case against the Missouri Pacific Railroad on behalf of the Michigan delegation to the National Beauty Culturist League convention in Houston. This delegation bought tickets, boarded the train in Detroit, and rode south without any incident until they reached Texas where they were asked to move to the Jim Crow car, and were threatened when they didn’t move quickly. Tate also filed a successful lawsuit against the United Steelworkers of America which helped to end segregation in the steel industry in Texas.

In his career, Tate worked with many outstanding lawyers, including Thurgood Marshall, Robert L. Carter, and William J. Durham. He also offered his services to community and NAACP leaders, including A. Maceo Smith, Lu Lu B. White, and Juanita Craft. Tate moved to Oklahoma in 1963.

On December 12, 1968, Ulysses Simpson Tate died of a stroke in Wewoka, Seminole County, Oklahoma at the age of 68. He was fondly remembered for all the work he accomplished for the NAACP Roy Wilkins remarked that “Mr. Tate rendered invaluable service not only to the NAACP but to the entire southwest region.”

A Brief History

As early as 1946, William Tate, then dean of men at UGA, expressed a need for a new student center, as the number and variety of student activities had outgrown the capacity of the then-current facility, Memorial Hall. It was 23 years before planning for Phase I of the center would commence and another 12 years of development before the first bits of earth were moved on the site adjacent to Sanford Stadium.

On January 28, 1981, a crowd of administrators, staff, students and visiting dignitaries braved chilly temperatures as UGA President Fred C. Davison led the groundbreaking ceremony. University officials, in consultation with the Board of Regents, decided that the new center would be named in memory of the beloved administrator who had first conceived it. Dean Tate had passed away the previous year. On October 20, 1983, the Dean William Tate Student Center was dedicated and officially opened.

The student center was built for the benefit of the entire University community and quickly became the “heart” of student activity on campus. For nearly three decades, the many programs and services housed within Tate have been designed to meet the social, cultural and recreational needs of UGA’s student body.

The $58-million Tate Student Center expansion and renovation project drastically increased space for student programs and activities. The project was funded by a $25-per-semester increase in the student activity fee the increase was approved by the student body via referendum vote during spring semester 2005.

The expansion opened its doors to the University community on June 1, 2009. Incoming first-year students and their parents were among the first to see the new facility as part of summer orientation. On August 20, 2009 UGA President Michael F. Adams led a gathering of faculty, staff, administrators and students in cutting the ribbon, officially dedicating the expanded facility.

Tate celebrated its 30th anniversary on October 23, 2013 with a day of activities for students, faculty and staff. A ceremony was held on Tate Plaza in the morning, and a cookout was held that afternoon. Inside Tate, the original 1983-era gameroom was recreated, vintage images were posted throughout the building, and the Tate Art Wall was covered with a large display of photos and newspaper articles.

With 200,000 square feet of space, the Tate Student Center features meeting rooms, multiple dining options, numerous lounges and gathering spaces, administrative offices and a 12,000 square-foot multipurpose room for large scale activities and events. Nearly three million people pass through Tate’s doors each year. The Tate Student Center is among the finest facilities of its kind and will continue to be a point of pride for current and future generations of UGA students.


One hundred years later, Washington's population exceeds six million -- and nearly three million private vehicles travel more than 55 billion miles on our state's streets, roads, and highways every year.

This chronology marks the major milestones in the evolution of Washington's transportation system over a century of progress, challenge, and innovation.

Governor Albert E. Mead signs law for State Highway Board and Commissioner on March 13, 1905. Highway Commissioner Joseph M. Snow and Highway Board hold their first meeting on April 17, 1905.

First automobile crosses Snoqualmie Pass in June 1905.

The first airplane in Washington is demonstrated in Georgetown, near Seattle, in March 1910.

Governor Marion E. Hay signs "Permanent Highway Act," imposing state control over major highways and levying a one-mill road tax, on March 8, 1911.

Henry L. Bowlby serves as Highway Commissioner, 1909-1911.

State engineers begin experimenting with concrete paving in 1912.

State takes over private toll bridge between Clarkston and Lewiston, making it Washington's first public interstate bridge, on December 4, 1913.

William R. Roberts serves as Highway Commissioner, 1911-1913 succeeded by William R. Roy, 1913-1916.

Governor Ernest Lister dedicates Sunset Highway (now I-90) at Snoqualmie Pass on July 1, 1915.

President Woodrow Wilson signs Federal Aid Road Act on July 11, 1916.

James Allen serves as Highway Commissioner, 1916-1921.

Clark and Multnomah counties open Columbia River Interstate Bridge on February 14, 1917.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dedicates Government Locks on Lake Washington Ship Canal on July 4, 1917.

First public airstrips are developed in Spokane (Felt's Field) and Seattle (Sand Point) in 1920.

The State Highway Board is replaced by the State Highway Committee (governor, state auditor, and state treasurer) in 1921 and a Division of Highways is created in a new Department of Public Works. James Allen serves as Supervisor of Highways until 1923, then as Highway Engineer until 1925.

Washington levies its first gasoline tax, one cent per gallon to raise $900,000 annually, in March 1921.

Division of Highways establishes first State Highways Testing Laboratory (now Materials Laboratory) in Olympia in July 1921.

State undertakes first snow removal services on Cascade mountain passes in the winter of 1922-1923.

Legislature removes highways from the Department of Public Works and puts them under a State Highway Engineer in 1923.

State builds its first standard dimension steel-truss bridge over the Dosewallips River in August 1923.

Final 36-mile stretch of Pacific Highway is paved between Kalama and Toledo to complete State Road No. 1 (now 99) in October 1923.

Present boundaries for six state highway regional offices, each headed by a District Engineer, are established in 1925 (a temporary seventh district directed interstate construction in the Puget Sound area between 1957 and 1975).

J. W. Hoover serves as Highway Engineer, 1925-1927.

First Vantage Bridge over the Columbia River opens on September 8, 1927 (replaced in 1962).

Samuel J. Humes serves as Highway Engineer, 1927-1929, then as Director of Highways until 1933.

Department of Highways becomes a separate code department on March 14, 1929.

Private Longview Bridge (now Lewis and Clark Bridge) opens as the longest cantilever bridge in North America on March 29, 1930 (the state purchased it 1947).

State begins operating the Keller Ferry across the Columbia River in 1930.

Olympic Loop Highway (U.S. 101) opens on August 26-27, 1931.

George Washington Memorial Bridge (Aurora Bridge) opens on February 22, 1932.

Legislature approves $10 million in emergency relief bonds for public roadwork, funded in part from the gas tax, in February 1933. This is the first bonded debt issued by the state for roads.

Lacey V. Murrow serves as Director of Highways, 1933-1940.

Highway Department establishes first truck weighing stations in 1933.

Deception Pass and Canoe Pass bridges open between Whidbey Island and Fidalgo Island in July 1935.

Black Ball ferry Kalakala enters service on July 3, 1935 (the State retires it in 1967).

Legislature approves sweeping new highway code, raises speed limit to 50 m.p.h., and creates new Toll Bridge Authority within the Department of Highways in March 1937.

Tacoma Narrows Bridge opens on July 1, 1940, and Lake Washington Floating Bridge (or Mercer Island Bridge, now Lacey V. Murrow Floating Bridge) opens the next day.

Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapses during a windstorm on November 7, 1940.

Burwell Bantz serves as Director of Highways, 1941-1945.

During World War II, gas rationing is imposed and maximum speed limits are reduced to 35 m.p.h. Grand Coulee Dam and Hanford nuclear reservation are completed.

Voters approve Amendment 18 to the state constitution, limiting all transportation-related tax revenues to highway uses, on November 7, 1944.

Clarence Hickey dies shortly after being named Director of Highways in 1945, and is succeeded by Clarence Shain, 1945-1949.

Legislature passes first authorization for limited-access highways and establishes an Aeronautics Commission in March 1947.

William A. Bugge serves as Director of Highways, 1949-1963.

Agate Pass Bridge between Bainbridge Island and Kitsap Peninsula opens October 7, 1950.

Replacement Tacoma Narrows Bridge opens on October 14, 1950.

Washington State Toll Bridge Authority takes over Black Ball Line, at a cost of $6.8 million, to establish Washington State Ferries on June 1, 1951.

Legislature reorganizes the Department of Highways under a new five-member Highway Commission effective July 1, 1951.

White Pass highway (SR 12) is officially opened on August 12, 1951.

First portion of Seattle's Alaskan Way Viaduct between Battery and Dearborn streets opens on April 4, 1953.

The Steamboat Slough and Snohomish River bridges in Everett, Skagit River Bridge in Mt. Vernon, Chehalis River Bridge in Aberdeen, and Wenatchee River Bridge all open in between 1954 and 1956.

Department of Highways begins using its first "computer," an IBM Cardatype, in March 1956.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs new Federal Aid Highway Act, which boosts federal match to 90 percent to create an "Interstate and Defense Highway System" on June 29, 1956.

Olympia Freeway bypass (a portion of future I-5) opens on December 12, 1958.

Vancouver-Portland Interstate Toll Bridge over the Columbia River opens in January 1960.

First portion of Interstate 5 opens in Tacoma on December 21, 1960.

Washington State Legislature adopts Highway Advertising Control Act to remove billboards in March 1961 (four years ahead of National Highway Beautification Act).

Hood Canal Floating Bridge opens to traffic on August 12, 1961.

Seattle's "Century 21 Exposition" World's Fair opens on April 21, 1962.

Charles G. Prahl serves as Director of Highways, 1963-1969.

Evergreen Point (now Albert D. Rosellini) Floating Bridge opens on August 28, 1963.

Interstate 5 opens to traffic between Seattle and Everett on February 3, 1965, and Seattle reversible lanes open in June.

Interstate 405 opens between Renton and Tukwila on September 3, 1965.

With Washington state participation, Oregon Highway Department completes the Astoria-Megler Bridge over the Columbia River on August 27, 1966.

First "superferry," Hyak, is launched in San Diego on December 17, 1966.

George H. Andrews serves as Director of Highways, 1969-1975.

Spokane's 4th Avenue viaduct is completed in September 1969.

Final portion of I-5 is completed on November 14, 1969.

Department of Highways occupies its current headquarters in Olympia in 1970.

Environmental lawsuits are filed to halt construction of Interstate 90 on May 28, 1970.

Fred Redmon Memorial Bridge opens on I-82 over Selah Creek on November 2, 1971.

Jumbo Ferries Spokane and Walla Walla are launched during 1972.

North Cascades Highway (SR 20) opens between Newhalem and Winthrop on September 2, 1972.

King County voters approve creation of Metro Transit on September 19, 1972.

State's first acoustical freeway barriers and first "High Occupancy Vehicle" (HOV) lanes are introduced in 1973.

Spokane "Expo 7" World's Fair opens on May 4, 1974.

OPEC oil embargo spurs Congress to pass National Mass Transportation Act, providing the first federal aid for transit operating costs, and to impose a 55 m.p.h. freeway speed limit in 1974 (lifted in 1996).

William A. Bulley serves as last Director of Highways, 1975-1977.

Legislature grants local governments authority to create Public Transportation Benefit Areas to provide transit services in 1975.

Highway Commission signs memorandum of understanding for revised I-90 design with Seattle, Mercer Island, Bellevue, and King County on December 21, 1976.

Eleven-mile section of I-205 bypassing Vancouver opens to traffic on December 22, 1976.

New Washington State Department of Transportation, guided by a Transportation Commission, formally begins operation on September 21, 1977. The Commission names William A. Bulley as the first Secretary of Transportation.

Innovative cable-stayed Intercity Bridge opens across the Columbia between Pasco and Kennewick in September 1978.

In the first railroad line rehabilitation project in the West, WSDOT starts work on 61-mile spur line between Metaline Falls and Newport in 1979.

West half of Hood Canal Floating Bridge sinks during a severe storm on February 13, 1979.

Federal courts lift injunction on final I-90 construction between Seattle and I-405 on August 24, 1979.

Mount St. Helens erupts on May 18, 1980, wiping out much of SR 504 and temporarily closing more than 1,000 miles of state highways.

First of a new class of ferries, the Issaquah, is launched on December 29, 1980.

Duane Berentson serves as Secretary of Transportation, 1981-1993.

First "FLOW" on-ramp meters are installed on I-5 on September 30, 1981.

Replacement Hood Canal Bridge opens to traffic on October 3, 1982.

Twin I-182 bridges open between Richland and Pasco on November 27, 1984.

Third floating bridge across Lake Washington (later named for Homer M. Hadley) opens on June 4, 1989.

Washington State Legislature enacts High Capacity Transportation Act, authorizing Regional Transit System Plans, and Growth Management Act (GMA), first state mandate for comprehensive planning, in 1990.

While under reconstruction, the original 1940 Lacey V. Murrow Floating Bridge sinks during a violent storm on November 25, 1990.

President George H. W. Bush signs Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act, broadening federal transportation policies and funding, on December 18, 1991.

Sid Morrison serves as Secretary of Transportation, 1993-2001.

Department of Transportation launches its first website in 1994.

State inaugurates its first "Grain Train" serving Port of Walla Walla in fall 1994.

Transportation Commission adopts a first-ever 20-year transportation plan, integrating all forms of surface transportation in each of the state's 39 counties, in spring 1996.

Washington State Ferries launches its first Jumbo Mark II ferry, the Tacoma, on August 29, 1996.

King, Pierce, and Snohomish County voters approve $3.9 billion "Sound Transit" plan on November 5, 1996.

Rideshare program, coordinated by state and local transit authorities, begins in Thurston, Pierce, King, Kitsap, and Snohomish counties in December 1996.

The cable-stayed bridge over Tacoma's Thea Foss Waterway on SR 509 opens on January 22, 1997.

Johnston Ridge Observatory on Mount St. Helens and final section of Spirit Lake Memorial Highway (SR 504) open on May 17, 1997.

Washington State Ferries launches its first passenger-only ferry, Chinook, on May 15, 1998.

State voters pass Referendum 49, which reduces Motor Vehicle Excise Tax (MVET), reallocates transportation funds, and authorizes $1.9 billion in bonds to fund $2.3 billion in transportation projects on November 3, 1998.

State approves a $350 million "New Partners" proposal for new toll bridge across the Tacoma Narrows on November 18, 1998.

With state funding and aid, Amtrak inaugurates "Cascades" rail service between Eugene and Seattle with three new "Talgo" trains on January 11, 1999.

Voters approve Initiative 695, capping annual MVET at $30, on November 2, 1999. The Supreme Court later voids the initiative, but the Legislature retains the MVET cap.

State Blue Ribbon Commission on Transportation proposes major reforms and new funding strategies on November 29, 2000.

A severe earthquake near Olympia causes more than $1 billion in damage to roads and infrastructure on February 28, 2001.

Douglas B. MacDonald becomes Secretary of Transportation in 2001.

Terrorist attacks temporarily shut down many transportation systems on September 11, 2001, and lead to intensified security precautions for airports, ferries, railroads, and highways.

Voters reject Referendum 51 transportation plan and gas tax increase while approving Initiative 776, which seeks to cap local MVET surcharges, on November 5, 2002.

Five-cent-per-gallon gas tax increase takes effect on July 1, 2003, to fund $4.2 billion in priority "nickel projects."


Today, WSDOT spends more than $1 billion annually for planning, construction, operation, maintenance, and management of key elements of a complex "multimodal" system of transportation including more than 7,000 miles of state highways (only 9 percent of total road miles, but carrying nearly 60 percent of all traffic), a Washington State Ferries fleet serving more than 25 million annual riders, 16 emergency airfields, and special passenger and freight rail services. (Back cover)

2005 and Beyond .

Today the Washington State Transportation Commission and Washington State Department of Transportation face tasks and challenges both new and old. In updating its 20-year plan, the Transportation Commission has identified key issues for innovation, investment, and improvement, including --

    Meeting the transportation needs of the 2 million additional citizens expected to live in Washington by 2030.

In partnership with federal and local governments, the private sector, and, foremost, the people of our state, the Washington State Transportation Commission and the Department of Transportation are working to keep Washington moving in the twenty-first century.

Rebuilt Lacey V. Murrow floating bridge (right) and the new Homer M. Hadley Bridge across Lake Washington, October 2001

HistoryLink.org Photo by Priscilla Long

Sunset Highway switchback near Snoqualmie Pass, ca. 1915

Lewiston-Clarkston Bridge spanning the Snake River between Clarkston, Washington, and Lewiston, Idaho, 1910s

Postcard Courtesy Washington State University Libraries

Concrete base for paving of Pacific Highway, near Kent, 1910

Dosewallips River Bridge, 1993

Photo by Jet Lowe, Courtesy Historic American Engineering Record

Cover of promotional brochure for Lake Washington Floating Bridge (later renamed Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge), ca. 1940

Olympic Highway near Lake Quinault, ca. 1937

Ferry Kalakala, ca. 1960

Ellensburg - Cle Elum Highway, Kittitas County, 1940s

Courtesy Washington Rural Heritage (TRN154)

Agate Pass Bridge, November 21, 2004

HistoryLink.org Photo by Priscilla Long

Astoria-Megler Bridge over Columbia River, seen from Astoria, Oregon, August 16, 2002

HistoryLink.org Photo by Kit Oldham

Fred Redmon Bridge over Selah Creek canyon, I-82, Yakima County, October 17, 2008

The True Story of the Short-Lived State of Franklin

As the story of the lost State of Franklin shows, the American Revolution left some western communities in complicated circumstances.

Related Content

After the war was won, communities west of the Appalachian Mountains and east of the Mississippi didn't default to becoming part of the United States. "It was never assumed," writes Jason Farr in The Tennessee Historical Quarterly. Instead, those communities  “had the option of creating jurisdictions within existing states, forming new states within the union, or creating their own sovereign republics.” The residents of Franklin chose the middle option, feeling, as George Washington himself feared, that they had become “a distinct people” from those in the Atlantic states who fought for independence. The story of Franklin highlights how uncertain the early Union was and the rocky relationship between the original 13 Atlantic states and the West.

“There was little concern for western political and economic interests during the Confederation era,” Farr writes, “especially among the northeastern elite. Some even assumed that frontier communities would remain outside the union.” But when Franklin officially declared independence, as it did in 1784 starting with a conference on this day, it showed that the Founders had to pay more attention to the west.

At the time, the land of the State of Franklin was considered to have been four counties in North Carolina. However, North Carolina had ceded the land to the United States Congress in April 1784. The settlers in the region, which was known as the Cumberland River Valley, “were concerned that Congress would sell the territory to Spain or France as a means of paying off some of the government’s war debt,” writes History.com. In response to this worry, North Carolina took the territory back and started to organize it as part of the state.

But four counties decided they should make their own fate rather than waiting on North Carolina. The president of the convention of delegates that made this decision chose John Sevier, a Revolutionary War veteran, as president.

(Map drawn by Wikipedia user Iamvered)

In December 1784, Franklin declared itself to be an independent state, rather than part of the union–although, as George W. Troxler  notes in the Encyclopedia of North Carolina, Franklin wasn’t aware that North Carolina had agreed to take it back just the month before.

“The December 1784 constitution of Franklin did not formally define its boundaries,” Troxler writes. “By implication, jurisdiction was assumed over all of the ceded territory, and area approximating the future state of Tennessee.” Leaders within the United States began to think this posed a problem for the new union, writes Farr, because the American Revolution would only live up to its promise if they could keep the new country together.

Franklin existed as an independent state for about four years, transacting its own treaties with the Overhill Cherokee whose land it occupied and even considering an alliance with Spain. But in the end, the leaders of Franklin decided to rejoin North Carolina in 1789. The land Franklin occupied was mostly the property of the Muskogee and Cherokee, writes Troxler, and as the federal government made new treaties with the Native Americans, Franklin found that its separate agreements were hard to maintain. Rather anti-climatically, when Sevier’s term expired in 1788, “the legislature did not meet again,” Troxler writes. By 1789, Franklin was over and all its lands had rejoined North Carolina.

“ Although the State of Franklin rebellion was ultimately unsuccessful, it did contribute to the inclusion of a clause in the U.S. Constitution regarding the formation of new states,” writes PBS. That clause stipulates that while new states “may be admitted by the Congress into this Union,” new states can’t be formed “within the jurisdiction of any other State” or states unless the state legislatures and Congress both okay the move.

About Kat Eschner

Kat Eschner is a freelance science and culture journalist based in Toronto.

Who were the followers known as the Manson Family?

In the public’s imagination, the “Manson girls,” as they came to be known, loomed almost as large as Manson himself. Mostly young women in their late teens and early 20s, Manson Family members were, in the late 1960s, not especially unusual. White, middle-class women all over the country were heading for cities like San Francisco and Los Angeles, inspired by other hippies to “turn on, tune in, and drop out.” Manson used his female followers to lure other men to both join the group and to support it—it was several of the women that initially met Dennis Wilson and brought Manson to his home.

Manson and the Family bounced around Los Angeles, eventually settling at Spahn Ranch, an old film-and-television set in the western San Fernando Valley. At Spahn, Manson exercised total domination over the group—members were reportedly forbidden from wearing eyeglasses or carrying money, and in Member of the Family: My Story of Charles Manson, Life Inside His Cult, and the Darkness That Ended the Sixties, Manson follower Dianne Lake (just 14 when she met Manson) detailed long nights of lectures, in which Manson instructed others at the ranch to take LSD and listen to him preach about the past, present and future of humanity. Some of the Family remained loyal to Manson even after he was sentenced to death (later converted to life in prison when the state of California overturned the use of the death penalty)—in 1975, one of Manson’s earliest followers, Lynette “Squeaky” Fromme, attempted to assassinate president Gerald Ford (her gun jammed and she was quickly felled by the Secret Service).

How did Manson fit into the Hollywood scene?

Manson had connections to a number of wealthy and influential people in Los Angeles. Through Dennis Wilson, he became acquainted with record producer Terry Melcher, son of actress Doris Day and boyfriend of model and actress Candice Bergen. At one point, the daughter of actress Angela Lansbury was a Family hanger-on, and though she wasn’t an official member, she used her mother’s credit cards to buy the Family’s food and clothing.

Melcher and Bergen lived at the house (10050 Cielo Drive) that Tate would eventually rent with her husband, director Roman Polanski, and Guinn posits that the house represented Manson’s rejection by the musical establishment—he’d courted Melcher as a patron, and even hosted the producer at Spahn Ranch, where Melcher politely listened to Manson and the Family perform. Manson pinned a great deal of hope on his connections with Wilson and Melcher, and it’s widely believed that once it became clear the two men weren’t going to significantly advance his music career (though Wilson did convince the Beach Boys to re-work and record a version of Manson’s song “Cease to Exist,” which they renamed “Never Learn Not to Love,” it was considered a flop), Manson became increasingly focused on violence.

Actress Sharon Tate takes a leap in the film Don't Make Waves (Silver Screen Collection/Getty Images) Terry Melcher and Candice Bergen, who were formerly acquainted with Manson and lived in the house where Tate was murdered before Tate and Polanski moved in. (Dove / Express / Getty Images)

What was ‘Helter Skelter’?

Prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi, in his exhaustive attempt to put together a motive for the Family’s killings, landed on Manson’s obsession with what he called ‘Helter Skelter.’ Taken from the Beatles song of the same name (Manson told his followers the White Album was further evidence his theories about the end of the world were correct), ‘Helter Skelter,’ in Manson’s verbiage, was the pending race war that would see thousands dieand force the Family disappear to underground caves. There, they would wait until it was time for them to emerge and rule what was left of the world.

While Manson initially foretold that the first crimes would be committed by African-Americans against whites, the desperate state of his affairs in the summer of 1969—his musical aspirations had largely come to nothing and his Hollywood connections had died up—led him to shift focus and tell the Family they might have to begin Helter Skelter themselves, committing savage crimes in upscale neighborhoods in an attempt to demonstrate to African-Americans how the violence should be carried out. In 1974, Bugliosi published Helter Skelter: The True Story of the Manson Murders, the first major work examining the Manson Family and the best-selling true crime book of all time.

Overview of Spahn Ranch, a former Hollywood filming location where the Manson Family later took up residence. 1970. (Ralph Crane / The LIFE Picture Collection / Getty Images)

Who were the Manson Family’s victims?

On the night of August 8, 1969, Manson Family members Tex Watson, Patricia Krenwinkel, Susan Atkins, and Linda Kasabian (who would later turn state’s witness against the others) drove to Tate and Polanski’s home (the director was out of town working on a film). The eight-months pregnant Tate, who appeared in 1967’s Valley of the Dolls and was considered one of Hollywood’s most promising up-and-comers, was relaxing at home with her friends: celebrity hairstylist Jay Sebring, coffee heiress Abigail Folger, and Folger’s boyfriend Voytek Frykowski. None of them had any tangible connection to Manson or the Family other than being physically in the house previously occupied by someone Manson knew (Terry Melcher).

In Helter Skelter, Bugliosi writes that a witness for the prosecution described a March 1969 day on which Manson came to the house looking for Melcher and found Tate on the porch instead—“There could be no question that Charles Manson saw Sharon Tate, and she him,” writes Bugliosi.

Tate and her friends all died at the hands of Watson, Krenwinkel, and Atkins, as did Steven Parent, a teenaged friend of the house’s caretaker who happened to be pulling out of the driveway as the killers arrived.

The very next night, the same group of Family members, plus Leslie van Houten and Manson himself, set out to commit more murders. They drove to the house of grocery business executive Leno LaBianca and his wife, Rosemary, in the Los Feliz area of Los Angeles. LaBianca was totally unknown to the Manson Family—some of its members had reportedly been to a party in the neighborhood. According to Bugliosi, the LaBiancas were chosen at random after several hours of driving around upscale Los Angeles neighborhoods.

Leslie Van Houten, Susan Atkins, and Patricia Krenwinkel (left to right) walk from the jail section to the courtroom during the trial for their role in the Manson Family murders. (Bettmann / Contributor)

A History of The Tate Modern in 60 Seconds

An immense, iconic building standing tall on London’s skyline, the magnificent Tate Modern gallery showcases the best of national and international modern art. One of the four major Tate sites, the modern gallery is based on Bankside facing St. Paul’s Cathedral and the City of London.

The building was formerly the Bankside Power Station in the borough of Southwark, designed by the architect Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, who also planned the Battersea Power Station. Building began in 1947, and the Power Station closed in 1981. It wasn’t until 1992, when the Tate Gallery opened a competition to design a new building for modern art, when Herzog and de Meuron won with their proposal of reinventing the Bankside Power Station, rather than it being demolished. The great Turbine Hall, which previously held the electricity generators of the power station, was transformed into a vast social space. At five storeys high, it provides a large area for specially commissioned installations. Alongside the Turbine Hall was the Boiler House, which subsequently became the galleries that are seen in the building today. The 4.2 million bricks used on the façade of the building and the gigantic tower formulate the Tate Modern as a prominent and distinguishable design.

The gallery attracts an astonishing five million visitors per year, and is renowned as one of the largest collections of modern and contemporary art from around the globe. It showcases art from 1900 to the present day, with countless famous names such as Warhol, Lichtenstein, Bonnard, Matisse, Picasso, and Rothko.

The galleries here are grouped by artistic movement, spanning over five of the seven available floors. Other facilities at the Tate Modern include a performance area, education areas, an auditorium, several shops, a café, restaurant, community garden and a room for members, alongside easy access to the Tate Britain.

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Watch the video: A Stroll Round Tate Britain - A History of the Tate (January 2022).