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Massacre at Mystic (May 26, 1637)

Massacre at Mystic (May 26, 1637)

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The Mystic massacre took place on May 26, 1637, during the Pequot War, when English settlers under Captain John Mason, and Narragansett and Mohegan allies set fire to a fortified Pequot village near the Mystic River. They shot any people who tried to escape the wooden palisade fortress and killed the entire village, consisting mostly of women and children, in retaliation for previous Pequot attacks. The only Pequot survivors were warriors who had been with their sachem Sassacus in a raiding party outside the village.

Estimates of dead Pequot range from 400 to 700, mostly women, children and old men, as the warriors were out on a raiding party. On top of their being weakened from disease, the massacre practically broke the Pequots, who fled and were hunted down. Sassacus and many of his followers were surrounded in a swamp near a Mattabesic village called Sasqua. In the following battle, known as the "Fairfield Swamp Fight", Sassacus and about 80 others managed to escape. Nearly 180 warriors were killed, wounded, or captured. Sassacus was eventually killed by the Mohawk, who sent his scalp to the English as a symbol of friendship.


But at the beginning everything was totally different. English came to a new land to start new life in there as well as to establish some new colonies. They were not ready to share this land with anybody. In fact they regarded a supposition of any other inhabitants there as unthinkable. The Indians were the total surprise for Europeans. The more surprising was their way of life in the eyes of the colonists, who were mainly English. They couldn’t understand that native perception of the world was fundamentally different than theirs. They had different views of spirituality, nature, appearance, property, and division of labor, principles of warfare, and the social relationships. The English were puritans so God was their power and anyone who sought power through access to the spiritual world were communing with the devil. From that point of view English couldn’t accept also the appearance of native people. Though all of them were interested in Indian wampums, they were indignant at the Indians lack of dress. Puritans as they were, they were shocked by the relationships between men and women. Surprisingly for them women were treated as equals, they were able to speak and to earn money English were horrified comparing men’s and women’s part in getting food. They couldn’t imagine how ruthless Indian men must be to make their women work so hard. These two cultures were so differently organized that it had to cause some conflicts.

The Puritans and the Pequot

So it did. As the puritans and natives grew increasingly distrustful of each other, the former set up local militias to defend them against the latter. These militias were commanded by Captain John Underhill who thought that the best form of defense is certainly offence. His first step was to defend English from all threats the first of which were the Pequot. The Pequot war was the result of many conflicts between the colonists and the Indians. These were disputes over property, hunting and dishonest traders. Besides the English made natives pay “tributes” by holding their children as the hostages. In such a contingency one would expect some hostility between them.

This hostility became one of the specific conditions that provoked the massacre afterwards. The other reasons are well-known – religious bigotry and diseases. Unfortunately European colonists had little respect for cultural diversity and that they had a God given right to settle this New World. They believed that their way of believing is the only correct way and that the Indians simply haven't been taught the right way. Still English felt superior to all Indians even those who became Christian. The last reason – diseases – played an important role in the relationships between colonists and the natives as well. Both sides considered it to be providential. Whereas the colonists saw in this sigh of God, that this land belongs to them, the Indians considered diseases as the terrible sign of fate. After the epidemics the Pequot population decreased very much. That’s why their rival tribes – Naragansetts and Mohegans laid claim to become a leader instead of Pequots.

Still the first claimants to the land were the English colonists. Pequots were proclaimed an aggressor since they were the main obstacle to European expansion. Pequot’s power was the exact reason why the attack was planned to be a massacre: English intended to make an example of the Pequots. The soldiers were told to kill everybody and when they hesitated Captain Underhill said that according to the Bible women and children must perish with their menfolks. People were blinded with religious bigotry at that time so they obeyed. Too many children and women were killed because of strong European conviction that their interests were God’s interests. This bigotry created a whole new moral underpinning for conquest. The terror that took its place at Mystic was God’s holy terror and the weapon that took so many lives was God’s weapon. It was something like a holy crusade against non-Christians. No wonder then that by drawing the line between Christian and non-Christian Puritans were always justifying bloodshed in the name of God.

But on the other side there were the native tribes Naragansetts and Mohegans who took the field. These tribes wanted to grab the power. Mohegans wanted to take vengeance on Pequots for their past. Six years before the Mystic attack the Pequots became divided into pro-English and pro-Dutch factions. Each faction wanted its leader to become the grand sachem. But it was pro-Dutch faction leader who won this competition. After that pro-English part of Pequot tribe fled to form their own tribe, the Mohegan. Thus the Mohegan and the Pequots became enemies.

The Narragansett’s motivation is worth mentioning either. They saw clearly that if they won the war they would become the strongest tribe in North America. Still they had not any idea what they’re getting into. Traditional native warfare was very different from the one in the Pequot war. The purpose of Indian wars was not to kill their enemies but to capture them. They could swelled the size of the tribe and become more powerful that way. A few warriors would be killed, but women and children were by all means protected as a prize. That’s why prior to the attack on the Pequot’s, the leader of the Narragansett forces had told English that he would like for them to spare the women and children as Indian people usually did for their warfare. The English obviously agreed to this thing for they wouldn't have got the participation of the Narragansett’s and Mohegan’s. They just deceived the tribes by not telling them about their true intentions. Even during the massacre they didn’t let their allying tribes to be inside the fort and finish the runaways. Naragansetts and Mohegan didn’t know that they were wiping out the whole tribe as old as proud as Europeans.

After the Mystic Massacre relationship between Europeans and Indians had changed forever. This day marks the beginning of the English promotion of the mass slaughter of Native Americans to clear them from the land. Since that day they would never be allies anymore. Overnight the balance of power had shifted from the natives to the English colonies. English finally got rid of the last obstacle to their further expansion and natives had no idea what the Mystic Massacre was about. Indians didn’t have an idea of property and seizing territory, so they were just shocked by a sudden colonist’s savagery, guessing what could possibly motivate their attackers. The destruction of Pequots made a deep impression on the other tribes. It sent a message to all the natives that life would never be the same again. Mystic Massacre was the first time English people engaged in a wholesale slaughter. That had the most profound impact on the development of America. From that day on Europeans realized that the continent was theirs for the taking.

The Tragedy of Two Different Cultures

This story illustrates the coexisting of two different cultures. It could be very productive if both of them could learn something new from each other. As said Tall Oak, Absentee Mashantucket Pequot and Wampanoag: “The first encounter between Europeans and Indians was positive, because our people followed way of life that was based on sharing”. Europeans could have been taught some principles of natural society they could change their attitude towards women, for example. But they believed that they were the Indians who haven't been taught the right way. The Europeans didn’t want to share they wanted to come and to take everything they wanted. And if they didn’t understand something they believed that that is wrong. Unfortunately they showed a mean spirit: being dishonest traders, soldiers and insatiable colonists. They judged people as much by what they believed as by how they looked and that was their mistake. The religious aspect of colonization in New England remains difficult for many Europeans to understand. It can be understood only in terms of religious wars in early modern Europe. For Europeans goal was the purification of the Christian Church they got the nickname Puritans. It’s worth admitting then that religious bigotry and sacred violence could never be the right guideline for making good choices towards the others.


Ten Days that Unexpectedly Changed America Summary

Ten Days That Unexpectedly Changed America Chapter Summaries Chapter 1: “Massacre at Mystic”
May 26, 1637 was a fateful day in the history of America. The actions of Major John Mason and his Puritan men set a precedent for the next two hundred years of European and Indian relations. On that clear May night near the Mystic River of New England, hundreds of Pequot Indians were killed by the Europeans and their allies, most of the victims being the elderly, women, and children. This massacre was a massive turning point in the Pequot War, effectively ruining the tribe.

Already weakened by disease and by competing native tribes, the Pequot were quickly routed and by September 21, 1638 the war ended with the Treaty of Hartford. The treaty revoked the legal status of the Pequot nation and the few surviving tribe members were sold into slavery. Pequot lands were seized by the Puritans who thought that their struggle was finally over. However, the Massacre at Mystic and the Pequot War set off a chain of events that changed the course of American history.

The death and destruction of this event set in motion the happenings that turned into King Philip’s War. King Philip’s War was the final fight for European domination of New England. Almost a third of the native population was wiped out by the intense fighting. The war showed that there would be no assimilation of Indian culture, but that it would instead be crushed and replaced. The Puritans massive show of force on the May night at Mystic led them to realize that they had ultimate power over the natives of New England. In their eyes, they were doing God’s work by civilizing the brutal savages that they thought the Native Americans were. The attitude of the Puritans made a heavy impact on the rest of the colonies, and eventually the United States. The Europeans made sure to heavily differentiate themselves from the native people. This can be easily seen in the concept of Manifest Destiny. As America pushed its frontier farther West, it had to push the native peoples too. President Jackson’s forced “Trail of Tears” and the full expansion of America to the Pacific was all rooted in the Massacre at Mystic. Just like the Puritans, the frontiersmen expanded through force and supremacy over the natives.

Chapter 2: Shays’ Rebellion
Everyone knows that the Constitution is one of the most important documents in American history, but many people have never heard of Daniel Shays. Daniel Shays, a Revolutionary War veteran turned farmer, lived in Western Massachusetts after the war. He had planned on retiring from his military life from which he had fought for the ideals of the revolution. However, he was drawn back into military life fighting against the very government he battled to create.

After the Revolutionary War, the Articles of Confederation were created to govern the new nation. The states were loosely tied together by a weak national government that had little applicable power. The states were left to individually find ways to pay for their war debts. Massachusetts did so by heavily taxing its people. The taxes were so heavy that in many cases people were paying more than they had paid under British rule. Daniel Shays, feeling outraged and betrayed, helped to organize the already present groups of fellow angry farmers into a rebel army. His army numbered close to 2,000 men. January 25, 1787 was to be the day that Shays would lead his men to attack the federal arsenal at Springfield. Due to communication difficulties, about 400 of Shays men were not present at the confrontation. Shays and his men were forced to retreat. Shays fled to Vermont and his rebellion was over.

Although it ended in defeat, Shays’ Rebellion had a major effect on the future of the country. It was a wake up call to the inefficiencies of the current governmental structure. Without Shays, there wouldn’t have been the strong call to replace the Articles of Confederation with a new constitution. Shays was a major talking point at the Constitutional Convention, tipping the scales in favor of the Federalists. Shays exposed the need for change. Also, without the pressure of Shays’ Rebellion George Washington may not have made an appearance at the convention. His appearance was important in garnering support for the reform as well as organizing the delagates.

John Sutter was a landowner in California. He ordered one of his workers, a carpenter named James Marshall, to start construction of a sawmill in May of 1847. Marshall searched for an appropriate site along the American River. A site was quickly found and construction quickly started. The morning of January 24, 1848 Marshall was inspecting one of the irrigation channels of the mill when he noticed something glittering in the water. He uncovered it and couldn’t believe what he had discovered. Marshall quickly brought the sample back to Sutter, who determined that it was in fact what they assumed it was: gold.

Sutter tried to keep the discovery a secret. However, soon people were flocking to his land in search of riches. People from all over California and the Northwest soon flocked to the area. The early miners figuratively and literally struck gold some men made tens of thousands of dollars in months. This created a new kind of American Dream based upon getting rich quickly. The news spread to the East Coast slowly because there was no transcontinental railroad. Once the news arrived, miners began to arrive in California from everywhere in the world. The California Gold Rush drove one of the largest and fastest human migrations in history. It brought people to the United States by the hundreds of thousands. This event helped colonize the vast lands of the West. The Gold Rush also to funded and inspired the Transcontinental Railroad, an extremely important development for America.

A negative effect of the rush was that of environmental destruction. Also, the Gold Rush helped to draw the United States towards the Civil War. Due to the vast riches and new businesses of California a huge debate was spurred when California was being considered as a state about the presence of slavery. California voted as a state to outlaw slavery, but they were below the Mason-Dixon Line. This did not settle well with the Southern states. Lastly, the immigration to California caused by the Gold Rush has created diversity that lasts to this day in California. No other state is as culturally or ethnically varied.

Chapter 4: Antietam
September 17, 1862 was the bloodiest day in American military history. By the end of the battle of Antietam, 22,719 men were dead, wounded, or captured.

Of course this fact alone makes this battle extremely significant. However, there is more importance to be found. On that September morning in Maryland, the Confederate and Union forces collided with a violent crash. General Lee and his rebel forces were coming off of a series of satisfying victories. Lee’s risky offensive strategy was succeeding in demoralizing the North. He needed a resounding victory in order to garner international recognition and hopefully an alliance with Great Britain or France. Lincoln was facing increased pressure from opponents of the war as the next election approached to end the bloody conflict. Both men knew a lot was riding on the upcoming battle. So, the two sides met in a 30 acre cornfield near Antietam Creek. The result of the battle was desolation. Both armies were devastated.

There was no tactical winner, but the Union forces had won a strategic victory. By losing this battle, the Confederates lost their chance for a European alliance. President Lincoln decided that it was finally the time he had been waiting for to unveil his Emancipation Proclamation. The North had the momentum it needed for such a big announcement. This changed the nature of the war. It was no longer just about preserving the Union. It was about freeing the slaves of the South.

The Battle of Antietam was arguably the most pivotal battle of the Civil War. Had the Confederacy succeeded in the fight at Antietam, the war could have ended in a very different way. Lee’s army would have been able to continue marching into Maryland, possibly convincing its citizens to join the Confederacy. The British or French would probably have sided with the Confederacy after the embarrassing performance of the Union military. The South could have won the war and the world would be a very different place today.


The Trail

During the Pequot War, an allied Puritan and Mohegan force under English Captain John Mason attacks a Pequot village in Connecticut, burning or massacring some 500 Indian women, men, and children.

As the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay spread further into Connecticut, they came into increasing conflict with the Pequots, a war-like tribe centered on the Thames River in southeastern Connecticut. By the spring of 1637, 13 English colonists and traders had been killed by the Pequot, and Massachusetts Bay Governor John Endecott organized a large military force to punish the Indians. On April 23, 200 Pequot warriors responded defiantly to the colonial mobilization by attacking a Connecticut settlement, killing six men and three women and taking two girls away.

On May 26, 1637, two hours before dawn, the Puritans and their Indian allies marched on the Pequot village at Mystic, slaughtering all but a handful of its inhabitants. On June 5, Captain Mason attacked another Pequot village, this one near present-day Stonington, and again the Indian inhabitants were defeated and massacred. On July 28, a third attack and massacre occurred near present-day Fairfield, and the Pequot War came to an end. Most of the surviving Pequot were sold into slavery, though a handful escaped to join other southern New England tribes.

0017 – Germanicus of Rome celebrated his victory over the Germans.

1521 – Martin Luther was banned by the Edict of Worms because of his religious beliefs and writings.

1647 – A new law banned Catholic priests from the colony of Massachusetts. The penalty was banishment or death for a second offense.

1736 – The British and Chickasaw Indians defeated the French at the Battle of Ackia.

1805 – Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned King of Italy in Milan Cathedral.

1864 – The Territory of Montana was organized.

1868 – U.S. President Andrew Johnson was acquitted, by one vote, of all charges in his impeachment trial.

1938 – The House Committee on Un-American Activities began its work of searching for subversives in the United States.

1940 – The evacuation of Allied troops from Dunkirk, France, began during World War II.

1946 – A patent was filed in the United States for an H-bomb.

1948 – The U.S. Congress passed Public Law 557 which permanently established the Civil Air Patrol as the Auxiliary of the new U.S. Air Force.

1961 – Civil rights activist group Freedom Ride Coordinating Committee was established in Atlanta, GA.

1969 – The Apollo 10 astronauts returned to Earth after a successful eight-day dress rehearsal for the first manned moon landing.

1972 – The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) was signed by the U.S. and USSR. The short-term agreement put a freeze on the testing and deployment of intercontinental and submarine-launched ballistic missiles for a 5-year period.

1994 – U.S. President Clinton renewed trade privileges for China, and announced that his administration would no longer link China’s trade status with its human rights record.

General Edmund Kirby Smith surrenders

Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith, commander of the Confederate Trans-Mississippi division, surrenders on this day in 1865, one of the last Confederate generals to capitulate. Smith, who had become commander of the area in January 1863, was charged with keeping the Mississippi River open to the Southerners. Yet he was more interested in recapturing Arkansas and Missouri largely because of the influence of Arkansans in the Confederate Congress who helped to secure his appointment.

Drawing sharp criticism for his failure to provide relief for Vicksburg in the summer of 1863, Smith later conducted the resistance to the failed Union Red River campaign of 1864. When the Confederate forces under Robert E. Lee and Joseph Johnston surrendered in the spring of 1865, Smith continued to resist with his small army in Texas. He insisted that Lee and Johnston were prisoners of war and decried Confederate deserters of the cause. On May 26, General Simon Buckner, acting for Smith, met with Union officers in New Orleans to arrange the surrender of Smith’s force under terms similar to Lee’s surrender at Appomattox. Smith reluctantly agreed, and officially laid down his arms at Galveston on June 2. Smith himself fled to Mexico, and then to Cuba, before returning to Virginia in November 1865 to sign an amnesty oath. He was the last surviving full Confederate general until his death in 1893.

Twenty-three days after Smith’s surrender, Brigadier General Stand Watie, a Cherokee, became the last Confederate field general to surrender.


Account by John Underhill [ edit | edit source ]

John Underhill described the scene and his participation: "Captaine Mason entring into a Wigwam, brought out a fire-brand, after hee had wounded many in the house, then he set fire on the West-side where he entred, my selfe set fire on the South end with a traine of Powder, the fires of both meeting in the center of the Fort blazed most terribly, and burnt all in the space of halfe an houre many couragious fellowes were unwilling to come out, and fought most desperately through the Palisadoes, so as they were scorched and burnt with the very flame, and were deprived of their armes, in regard the fire burnt their very bowstrings, and so perished valiantly: mercy they did deserve for their valour, could we have had opportunitie to have bestowed it many were burnt in the Fort, both men, women, and children, others forced out, and came in troopes to the Indians, twentie, and thirtie at a time, which our souldiers received and entertained with the point of the sword downe fell men, women, and children, those that scaped us, fell into the hands of the Indians, that were in the reere of us it is reported by themselves, that there were about foure hundred soules in this Fort, and not above five of them escaped out of our hands." Α]


Mystic (site of Mason's massacre of Pequots in 1637)

The pleasant town of Mystic, Connecticut, has a well of darkness in its past. It was here, in 1637, that one of the ugliest massacres of Indians by European settlers took place. The Pequot tribe, whose territory lay east of the Fresh River, were makers of sewan, or wampum, which tribes farther north and west valued highly. Recognizing this, the Dutch worked out an arrangement with the Pequots in which they would trade European goods for wampum, and then trade wampum with other Indians, particularly the Mohawks, for furs. This continued for several years, until the English arrived and decided they wanted a piece of the action. As tensions increased, a series of murders ensued: Indians killing Indians, Dutch killing Indians, Indians killing Englishmen. The horrific climax came on May 26, 1637, when a contingent of Englishmen under Captain John Mason attacked the Pequot village, burning it to the ground, and killing as many as 700 Indians.

The tribe-owned Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center is a working museum dedicated to Pequot history, including lifesized villages and forts. It is the largest American Indian museum in the world.

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The Mystic Massacre

Believing that the English had returned to Boston, Massachusetts, the Pequot sachem Sassacus took several hundred of his warriors to make another raid on Hartford.

But John Mason had only gone to visit the Narragansett, who joined him with several hundred warriors. Several allied Niantic warriors also joined Mason's group. On May 26, 1637, with a force up to about 400 fighting men, Mason attacked Misistuck by surprise. He estimated that "six or seven Hundred" Pequot were there when his forces assaulted the palisade. Some 150 warriors had accompanied Sassacus, so that Mystic's inhabitants were largely Pequot women and children. Surrounding the palisade, Mason ordered that the enclosure be set on fire. Justifying his conduct later, Mason declared that the holocaust against the Pequot was also the act of a God who "laughed his Enemies and the Enemies of his People to scorn making [the Pequot] as a fiery Oven . . . Thus did the Lord judge among the Heathen, filling [Mystic] with dead Bodies." Mason also insisted that should any Pequot attempt to escape the flames, that they too should be killed. Of the 600 to 700 Pequot at Mystic that day, only seven were taken prisoner while another seven made it into the woods to escape.

The Narragansett and Mohegan warriors who had fought alongside John Mason and John Underhill's colonial militia were horrified by the actions and "manner of the Englishmen's fight . . . because it is too furious, and slays too many men." Repulsed by the "total war" tactics of the Puritan English, and the horrors that they had witnessed, the Narragansett returned home.

Believing the mission accomplished, John Mason also set out for home. The militia became temporarily lost, but in doing so Mason narrowly missed returning Pequot Indians who, seeing what had occurred, gave chase to the Puritan forces to little avail.

It happened just before dawn on May 26, 1637 in Mystic, Connecticut: English colonists, for the first time, unleashed total war designed to obliterate an entire Indian tribe in the New World. Hundreds of men, women and children of the Pequot tribe were burned to death on a day that changed forever the relationship between those who had recently arrived and those who had lived here for countless generations.


In Windsor, a former Mystic fixture could be removed from pedestal again

Published July 10. 2020 8:34PM | Updated July 11. 2020 5:57PM

By Brian Hallenbeck Day staff writer

Windsor — Maj. John Mason, his right hand ever clutching his sheathed sword, could be forgiven for looking unsettled these days.

Hauled out of Mystic in 1995, Mason, or rather the state-owned bronze statue of him, soon could be moved for the second time in more than 130 years, targeted anew by people troubled by his role in the near-decimation of the Pequot tribe in the 1637 “Massacre at Mystic,” the climactic battle of the Pequot War, a seminal event in American history.

With the country rethinking its hero worship, some Windsor townspeople have called for the Mason figure to be removed from its prominent place in the middle of the town’s Palisado Green. The mayor has alerted the state Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, and the local historical society has begun considering options.

Last weekend, vandals splashed red paint on the statue and scrawled 𠇋LM,” for Black Lives Matter, on its base.

In southeastern Connecticut, the Mashantucket Pequot Tribe, whose ancestors, along with those of the Eastern Pequot Tribe, fought then-Capt. John Mason’s English forces, expressed adamant support this week for the statue’s permanent removal from public space.

“Mason’s statue is a constant reminder of that bloody morning on May 26, 1637, when Pequot men, women, children and elderly were attacked and murdered while they slept a genocidal attack meant to annihilate the Pequot nation,” the tribe said in a statement. “. Times are changing, and Americans are reckoning with our country’s troubled history. A growing number of people no longer support offensive symbols celebrating individuals who committed immoral and detestable acts against other groups of people or those that perpetuate systemic racism. While knowing our country’s history is essential, understanding its complexity via public displays of oppressive symbols is unnecessary and cruel.”

The Eastern Pequots also maintain the Mason statue should be removed, said the tribe’s chairwoman, Katherine Sebastian Dring.

Ironically, when activists persuaded the state to move the statue from Mystic, a drive that began in 1992, the Mashantuckets were among those who wanted to take it. The tribe, which had yet to open Foxwoods Resort Casino, was then planning a museum and had designs on a Mason exhibit, one that rather than glorify Mason would have presented the ways in which perceptions of him had changed.

Richard “Skip” Hayward, then the Mashantucket chairman, didn’t want the statue moved at all, recalled Kevin McBride, the UConn anthropology professor and former director of research for the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center.

“He said, ‘If you move it, people will forget what happened,’” McBride said. “He couldn’t have been more right.”

Erected in 1889 at Pequot Avenue and Clift Street, near the site of the massacre, the statue symbolized the area’s connection with the past, a painful reminder though it was for some.

𠇎verybody on the hill knew what happened,” McBride said. “In 2008, when we went back to do a battlefield survey, people who had been there were upset the statue was gone. People who had moved in had no idea what had happened. It’s a cliché to say, ‘Leave it, contextualize it,’ but maybe that’s what you should do.”

It would take more than rewording a plaque to put Mason and the massacre in the proper context, McBride said. Changes in school curriculums would help, too.

“I don’t think he’s a hero to anybody,” McBride said of Mason. 𠇋ut my view of him has changed. He was a product of his time, which is no excuse. He was following orders, which were to kill the men. . Whether he intended to kill the women and children by sword, that was the result.”

Douglas Shipman, executive director of the Windsor Historical Society, said no decisions about the Mason statue have yet been made.

“The objection to the present location is that it’s a place of such prominence, a public place,” Shipman said. With Mason’s 9-foot-tall likeness set on three layers of stone and granite, "it’s towering, kind of menacing and hostile-looking,” he said.

Opponents of the statue’s display see it as symbol of white colonialism and racism.

Shipman said the historical society has not taken a public position on the statue’s fate but would prefer it be preserved, perhaps indoors or in a less-visible space outdoors. He said the statue might be more “palatable” in such a location and if combined with “interpretative panels” that could tell the full story of the Pequots’ encounters with the English.

Shipman has reached out to the tribes for input.

It’s a misconception that the Pequots had a unified position in regard to the statue’s move from Mystic to Windsor, a town Mason founded, Shipman said. Back in 1992, when Ronald “Lone Wolf” Jackson, an Eastern Pequot, originated the movement, he was not speaking for tribal government.

“He got people riled up, but he was only one voice,” Shipman said.

Marcus Mason Maronn, a Mason descendant who originally wanted the statue moved to the family’s namesake Masons Island in Stonington, was another. When the statue was rededicated in Windsor on June 26, 1996, he was a keynote speaker.

“Removing the monument from the Pequots’ sacred site was a gesture of respect, henceforth, providing an opportunity to attempt to heal an old wound,” he said, according to a transcript. “It was a serious wound and there will always be an ugly scar but hopefully the indignation will be easier to endure now.”


U.S. History




1636- native attacks were spreading.
English man murdered- mistakenly blamed pequots. killed a few indians.
English unleased an attack. tension were about to erupt.
English sailed boats to make it look like they were leaving. they landed in Narragansett land. they made an alliance.
Before dawn- english and native allies commeneded them selves to god then went in. Get in without being detected.
natives covered the entrances with brush. started killing everyone. women, children, men. Got a torch. burned down everything, didn't plan on that, wanted to keep the fort. but couldn't kill all natives. if they got out of the fire they would be killed by english, if they got past the english, the Narragansett were behind them. took one hour. Other pequot tried to come help, but it was to late. A week later they tried to get rid of all remaining pequots.






Comprehension Questions:
1. How would you describe relationships between the Puritan settlers and the Pequot
before the Pequot War? Why do you think these relationships changed so quickly?
The first trade was peaceful, and they had no problems. But once they started to get to know each other, and they how they worked, and lived.


2. Before the arrival of the British, what was the status of the Pequot in the
Connecticut River Valley? How would you describe their relationships with other
Native American tribes?

The pequot were enemies with the Narragansett and the Mohican. You would think all natives would stick together but they ened up going with the puritans to help kill the pequot.


3. Why did the Puritans travel to the New World? What were their intentions upon
arrival?
They wanted to spread their religion of their church.



4. Compare and contrast Puritan and Pequot ideas about the following: land and
property, division of labor and gender, and warfare? Give examples to back up
your discussion.

The puritans thought the pequot were babying their men because the women were treated equal. The puritans didn't think the natives could own the land because they hadn't grown crops or built houses on it, so the puritans thought that they could own it.

5. In this program, one commentator suggests that the Dutch colonists favored trade,
while the British prioritized land. How did the difference in focus shape their
interactions with Native Americans, and their goals in the New World?
Because the Natives liked the dutch better and were able to trade with each other.


6. Why were British settlers unhappy with the way Pequot organized their economy
and relationship to the land? Do you think there was any validity to their concerns?
Who do you think, if anyone, ultimately had the right to decide who should
control the land?

The british thought they could control the land because the natives didn't build any crops on it. I think the natives had the right to control the land because the were their first.

7. Why do you think the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes fought with the Puritans
against the Pequot? Were you surprised by their actions? Discuss.

Because they have been rivals since the beggining. And yes it was surprising, because i thought the natives would want the land as much as the other natives.

8. One commentator, Tall Oak, ponders how the early colonies would have been
different if the Puritans had come in peace. How would you answer this question?
Do you think a different outcome in relations between the Pequot and the Puritans
was possible?




9. How did the Pequot manage to resurrect their community hundreds of years after
the massacre? How do you think it would feel to go from devastation to prosperity?
Because some ancestors were still alive so they got together to keep their land theirs. Because the tribes started to build casino.


10. Describe the details of the 1638 Treaty of Hartford, which ended the war. Why
was the treaty considered to be cultural genocide for the Pequot?
Becuase all natives that survived would be sold into slavery, and the women anh children would become slaves to the other native tribes.


11. What sources do you think historians used in order to recount the story of the
massacre at Mystic? What sources might you use if you were trying to create a
documentary about the early colonies? Do you think this documentary offers a
balanced and informed view of the massacre? Discuss.

They probably used journals from the natives and english men.

12. How did the massacre at Mystic changed the United States?




These “War Hawks,” as they were known, hoped that war with Britain, which was preoccupied with its struggle against Napoleonic France, would result in U.S. territorial gains in Canada and British-protected Florida.

In fact, the war had a far-reaching impact in the United States, as the Treaty of Ghent ended decades of bitter partisan infighting in government and ushered in the so-called “Era of Good Feelings.” The war also marked the demise of the Federalist Party, which had been accused of being unpatriotic for its antiwar …

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Watch the video: Massacre at Mystic River - Pequot War (January 2022).